L: George Guthrie & Margaret Walker

ORIGIN THEORIES for GFG2A BRANCH L

George Guthrie c1830IRE-c1873NY & Margaret Walker
of Ireland, Canada, New York, and Vermont

Introducing this branch to GFG2A gives us an Irish-Canadian-American connection. It also provides us with an interesting look at how census takers document biracial families from decade to decade.

At this point we know very little about George Guthrie’s family origins. Research is needed to gather more details on this branch of our tree.

Census records indicate that George Guthrie was born in Ireland, but there is no specific location given. Genetically, he was a Guthrie of GFG2A, so his heritage is of Scot-Irish origin. His wife Margaret Walker was born in England. Her mother was English, while her father was born in Africa.

This couple met and presumably married in either Canada or Vermont. They raised their family in Vermont and New York.

Branch L comes into Guthrie Family Group 2A by unusual means. Although the majority of the many GFG2A matches are to men of the GUTHRIE name, we do have a few random matches to men of other surnames. These are likely the result of some causal events such as non-paternity, feudal law, and adoptions involving Guthrie DNA.

There is currently 1 Y-DNA kit representing Branch L, unofficially attached to the project. The kit owner is a man of the FORD surname rather than Guthrie. Research shows that his direct Ford ancestor was actually born with the Guthrie surname, his parents being George and Margaret (Walker) Guthrie. He was adopted by his Ford stepfather soon after George Guthrie’s death and so assumed that name perpetuating a line of Ford men with Guthrie DNA.

THE GUTHRIE DNA PROJECT

Guthrie Family Group: GFG2A
Group Designation: Branch L – (Undetermined Cluster)

Haplogroup: R-M269
Confirmed Haplogroup: R-Z30233

YDNA Matches:
Kit________
George Guthrie c1830IRE-c1873NY > John Francis (Guthrie) Ford 1873NY-1926NY (GGF)


Family Finder / Autosomal DNA Kits:
None


Findings:

Although the kit owner planned to join the project he was never able to successfully attach his Y37 test results. The project does not have access to directly view his raw Y-DNA. We can infer some data based on his matches. The most important finding is that he is a genetic match for GFG2A.

Branch A Comparison: 4 differences
Branch B (Mode DNA Comparison): 2 differences
Branch C Comparison: 2 differences
Branch D Comparison: 3 differences (Guthrie-Phillips)
Branch D Comparison: 2 differences (Guthrie-Baldwin)
Branch E Comparison: 2 differences
Branch F Comparison: 2 differences
Branch G Comparison: 2 differences
Branch H Comparison: 2 differences
Branch I Comparison: 3 differences
Branch J Comparison: 2 differences
Branch K Comparison: 1 difference
Branch M Comparison: 2 differences

THE FAMILY of GEORGE GUTHRIE & MARGARET WALKER

GEORGE GUTHRIE
Parents: Unknown
Born: c1830
Location: Ireland (Unknown county)
Marriage: Margaret Walker (No Record) abt. 1760/1, probably Canada
Occupation: Laborer, Farmer
Death: 1873-1875
Location: New York, USA
Burial: Unknown, Presumably New York, USA


MARGARET WALKER
Parents: Unknown
Born: 1848
Location: England
Guthrie Sons: John Francis
Guthrie Daughters: Evas Caroline, Mary Ann, Wealtha Jane, Calista Rosettie, Lillian Martha
Marriage 2nd: John B Ford
Walker Sons: None Known
Walker Daughters: None Known
Death: 6 Oct 1910
Location: St Regis Falls, Franklin, New York, USA
Burial: Unknown, presumably in St Regis Falls, Franklin, New York, USA


CHILDREN:

EVAS CAROLINE GUTHRIE
1861-1916

Evas was born on 12 May 1861 in Alburgh, Vermont to a multi-racial family. Her father George Guthrie was born in Ireland. Her English-born mother Margaret Walker was either black or mulatto. The census records for the family fluctuate with varying documentation. The family moved to Hopkinton, Saint Lawrence, NY by the time Evas was 9 years old, to Disckinson, Franklin, NY within the next ten years, and then to Saint Regis Falls and Waverly, Franklin County, NY. Evas remained single during her lifetime. She applied for membership in the Tribune Sunshine Society on 1 Nov 1898. During her 50s it appears that Evas became an invalid, and was occasionally supported by her community with occasional gifts, such as a Christmas Box, or the proceeds from an Ice Cream Social. Her thanks were published in The Adirondack News.


MARY ANN GUTHRIE
1863-1910

Mary Ann was born in May of 1863 in New York State. She married Darwin Johnson, a Carrier (Letter?), originally from Vermont. They had 2 daughters. Mary Ann died in 1910.

Children: 2
Johnson Sons: None
Johnson Daughters: Jennie, Blanche

Family Finder Participants: None


WEALTHA JANE GUTHRIE
1864-1916

Wealtha was born on 8 Aug 1864 in New York State. Her marriage to Frank B Peterson, a mason, took place sometime between 1880-1905, but probably before the 1903 birth of their only child, George Lester Peterson. Wealtha died on 13 July 1916 in St Regis Falls, NY at the age of 51.

Children: 1
Peterson Sons: George Lester
Peterson Daughters: None

Family Finder Participants: No


CALISTA ROSETTIE GUTHRIE
1867-1895

Calista was born on 17 Sep 1867 in New York State. She married John M Schuyler on Christmas Day 1888 in St Regis. They had 1 son, Phillip P Schuyler. Calista died only 6 years later in 1895. John’s fate is unknown. Their son may have been raised by his aunt, Lillian Martha (Guthrie) Palmer, and other extended members of his mother’s family.

Children: 1
SCHUYLER SONS: Phillip P
SCHUYLER DAUGHTERS: None

Family Finder Participants: No


LILLIAN MARTHA GUTHRIE
1870-1951

Lillian was born 9 or 29 Sep 1870 in either Hopkinton St Lawrence, NY or Saint Regis, Franklin, NY. It appears that she had a child out of wedlock, Edwin Julian Guthrie, in 1894. He is referred to as her son in newspaper notices in The Adirondack News. The 1920 census lists Lillian as a widow. If this is true, then she married another Guthrie. She married Alfred Azro Palmer between 1900 and 1915. He died in 1918. No children.

Children: 1
Son (Unknown YDNA Source): Edwin Julian Guthrie
Daughters: None

Family Finder Participants: No


JOHN FRANCIS GUTHRIE later FORD
1873-1926

George Guthrie may never have met his only son, John Francis Guthrie, who was born on 26 Nov 1873 in New York State. George died around the same year. It could have been a little later, but there is no doubt thanks to Y-DNA testing that John Francis Ford is actually George Guthrie’s son. When his mother Margaret (Walker) Guthrie remarried to John B. Ford, John Francis was given the Ford surname and he was raised as a Ford.

John Francis (Guthrie) Ford married Dora E Emlaw in 1899. They were parents to 7 children and lived in Waverly and Syracuse, New York. John died in Syracuse on 24 Mar 1926.

Children: 7
Ford Sons (Guthrie Y-DNA): Frank Harold, Lawrence D, William E, Alley J, Manfred A
Ford Daughters (Guthrie atDNA): Margaret, Ethel

Y-DNA Project Participants: Yes (Unofficially)
Family Finder Participants: No


HISTORICAL HIGHLIGHTS

c1830: BIRTH of GEORGE GUTHRIE

A single census record from 1870 reveals that George Guthrie was born in Ireland. Being a GFG2A Guthrie, it might be safe to assume that to be Northern Ireland.

Census records list his middle initial as either “C” or “K”.

c1838 BIRTH of MARGARET WALKER

Based on Canadian and American census records, we know that Margaret was born in England.

1848: MARGARET WALKER IMMIGRATES to NORTH AMERICA

The US census indicates that Margaret Walker came to the US (or at least emigrated from England) in or about 1848. She would have been about 9 years old at the time.

1847 – 1850: GEORGE GUTHRIE IMMIGRATES to NORTH AMERICA

We do not know the exact date or location of George’s immigration. There are a couple of possible records.

In 1847, a GEORGE GUTHERIE arrived in St. John, New Brunswick. {Source: Baker, Dessie, Editor: Emigrants from Derry Port, 1847-49. Apollo, PA: Clossen Press, 1985. 107p. page 11.}

On 12 Mar 1850, New York, New York, a GEORGE GUTHERY, 20, servant, born in Ireland, arrived on the ship Excelsior.

George Guthrie has not been located in the census records of Canada or the United States in 1850/1851 or 1860/1861. Their daughter Evas was born in Vermont in 1861, so it is certain that his immigration date was no later than 1859-1860.

1851: CENSUS of CANADA EAST, CANADA WEST, NEW BRUNSWICK and NOVA SCOTIA

St Georges de Clarenceville, Rouville County, Canada East (Quebec), Canada

This seems to be a good possibility. St. Georges de Clarenceville is directly across the Canadian border from Alburg, Vermont where Margaret Walker was living in 1860.

This census page is a list of “inmates” (residents of the town), which is not specifically divided into households. However, family names do appear to be clustered together. Margaret is the only one of the Walker surname on the list. Age. 14, Born: England, Religion: Episcopalian. The people listed immediately above and below her, which might infer an association, are of the Billings surname:

Ostia Ann Billings (no occupation listed) Born United States, Religion: Unitarian, Age: 52, Female

Oscar F Billings, Teacher, Born: Canada, Religion: Unitarian, Age: 30, Male

Margaret Walker (no occupation listed) Born England, Religion: Episcopalian, Age: 14, Female

Miranda Billings, Teacher, Born Canada, Religion: Episcopalian, Age: 22, Female

1860: CENSUS of ALBURG, GRAND ISLE, VERMONT

Grand Isle is located directly across the US-CANADIAN border from Quebec.

MARGARET WALKER is listed as a 21 year old mulatto working as a domestic servant in the household of David Marvin. Her birthplace is listed as England.

This census record is the first indication that Margaret Walker likely has some African ancestry. Being born in England, the history of the slave trade and the abolition of slavery follows a different timeline than that of the United States. In 1778, slavery was made illegal in Scotland. The first bill for the abolition of the slave trade failed in 1790. The House of Lords rejected a bill passed by the House of Commons in 1792. The British Parliament abolished transatlantic slave trading on 25 March 1807, but this did not apply to all of its territories. Finally, in 1833, the Abolition of Slavery Act was passed by the British Parliament applying to all British territories. Abraham Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. It was not until 1865 that the United States Congress would pass the 13th amendment to the Constitution to abolish slavery in the USA. 

c1860: PRESUMED MARRIAGE of GEORGE GUTHRIE & MARGARET WALKER

Margaret had been listed by her maiden name in the Vermont census of 1860. Daughter Evas was born there 12 May 1861.

1861: BIRTH OF DAUGHTER – EVAS CAROLINA GUTHRIE

Evas Caroline Guthrie was born in Alburgh, Grand Isle Vermont on 12 May 1861. Her race is listed as ‘white’. Parents are identified by the town clerk on a birth record: George C. Guthrey, born Ireland, farmer; Margaret (no surname listed), born England, residing in Alburgh.

GRAND ISLE COUNTY, VERMONT

Evas remained single. She lived in Hopkinson, Saint Lawrence County, and Dickinson, Franklin County, New York, and finally settled in St. Regis Falls, Franklin, New York. She was a member of the Tribune Sunshine Society. In later years her heath declined and she was the recipient of donations or presents by local church & charity groups. The Adirondack News published her responses:

1 Aug 1914 St Regis Falls, Franklin, NY:

“I wish to thank the ladies and gentlemen of Mrs M.A. Rowell’s Sunday school class for the proceeds from their ice cream social, which amounted to $9.00, and also the Rev. N.A. Darling and Mrs Fletcher for their silver offerings. God is merciful to his own.”

1 Jan 1916 St Regis Falls, Franklin, NY:

“Miss Evas C Guthrie, who has been an invalid for many years desires to extend her thanks to the Epworth League for the Christmas Box presented to her the night before Christmas. She was more than delighted and feels very grateful for their thoughtfulness.”

Evas Caroline Guthrie died at St Regis on 8 Jun 1916.

1863: BIRTH of DAUGHTER – MARY ANN GUTHRIE

The second child was named Mary Ann Guthrie, born in May of 1863. She married Darwin Johnson in 1885. They had 2 daughters: Jennie L Johnson and Blanch D Johnson.

The Ogdensburg Journal dated 4 Octobert 1910 mentions her passing. She was only 47. 

“Mrs Darwin Johnson and Mrs Charles Barnes, of whom mention was made in this paper as being seriously ill, passed away Saturday, Sept. 17th. Much sympathy is expressed for their sorrowing relatives.”

1864: BIRTH OF DAUGHTER – WEALTHA JANE GUTHRIE

Born in New York State on 8 Aug 1864. Listed with the family in census records for 1870 and 1880. I have not been able to locate her for 1900. Wealtha married Frank B Peterson. They had 1 son, George Lester Peterson. Her date of death is listed as 13 July 1916 in St Regis Falls, NY.

1867: BIRTH of DAUGHTER – CALISTA ROSETTIE GUTHRIE

Calista was born on 17 Sep 1867 in New York State. She was listed with the family in the 1870 Hopkinson and 1880 Dickinson censuses. Calista married John M Schuyler. They had 1 son, Philip P Schuyler. She died at the age of 28 on 19 December 1895 in Waverley, Franklin, New York.

1870: CENSUS of HOPKINTON, SAINT LAWRENCE, NEW YORK, USA

George K Guthery, 40, M, Race: W, laborer, born: Ireland, father and mother of foreign birth, cannot read, cannot write

Margaret Guthery, 31, F, Race: B, keeping house, born: England, father and mother of foreign birth

Eva Guthery, 9, F, Race: M, born: Vermont, father and mother of foreign birth, attended school within the year

Mary A Guthery, 7, F, Race: M, born: New York, father and mother of foreign birth, attended school within the year

Wealtha J Guthery, 4, F, Race: M, born: New York, father and mother of foreign birth, attended school within the year

Calista Guthery, 2, F, Race: M, born: New York, father and mother of foreign birth

1870: BIRTH of DAUGHTER – LILLIAN MARTHA GUTHRIE

Daughter Lillian Martha Guthrie was born in Hopkinson, St Lawrence, New York on 9 September 1870 (or Sept 1871 St Regis Falls, Franklin, NY).  At about age 24, Lillian had a son, Edwin Julian Guthrie (1894-1957). Sometime prior to 1915, Lillian married Alfred Azro Palmer (1857-1918) who worked as a fireman at a mill. After her husband’s death, Lillian was listed as the head of household during the 1920 census in Waverly, Franklin, New York, and was living with her son Edwin and his family Philip Schuyler, her nephew also lived with them. The Adirondack News has several entries noting Mrs Lillian Palmer visiting Julian Guthrie’s family placing her residences at the time in either Tupper Lake or Malone. Lillian died on 16 October 1951 in Amsterdam, Montgomery, New York.

1873: BIRTH of SON – JOHN FRANCIS GUTHRIE

The youngest child of George & Margaret (Walker) Guthrie, John Francis was born on 26 Nov 1873. It is unknown if his father George died before or after his birth. His mother Margaret remarried before the 1880 census and John Francis is then listed as John F. Foard (Ford) even though the daughters are still listed as Guthrie. From that time John Francis Guthrie continued to use the Ford surname, explaining why his direct male descendant goes by the name of Ford, but possesses Guthrie Y-DNA.

John Francis Guthrie married Dora E Emlaw in 1899. They lived in Waverly, Franklin, New York, and had 5 sons: Frank Harold, Lawrence D, William E, Alley J, and Manfred A., and 2 daughters: Margaret, and Ethel. John died on 24 March 1926. His obituary was published in ‘The Malone Farmer’ on 31 Mar 1926, and in ‘The Adirondack News’ on 8 Apr 1926.

1873-1875

This is a rough estimate for George Guthrie’s death. He was alive for the conception of his son, John Francis Guthrie, but most likely dead by 1875 when the family is listed in the New York State census without him.

1875: CENSUS of NEW YORK STATE

Town of Dickinson, Franklin County, New York

Dwelling 100, Log, Value:000, Family No.122

Margaret Guthrie, 34, F, Race: B, (Head), Born: England, Marital Status: Now Married, Day Laborer, Alien, >21not able to read/write

Evas C Guthrie, 14, F, Race: B, daughter, Born: Vermont, Single

Mary Ann Guthrie, 12, Race: B, daughter, Born: St Lawrence, Single

Wealthy J Guthrie, 9, Race: B, daughter, Born: St Lawrence, Single

Calista R Guthrie, 7, Race: B, daughter, Born: St Lawrence, Single

Martha L Guthrie, 4, Race: (blank), daughter, Born: St Lawrence, Single

John Francis Guthrie, 1, Race: (blank), son, Born: Franklin, Single

1875-1880: MARRIAGE of MARGARET (WALKER) GUTHRIE & JOHN B. FORD

No marriage record found so far. John Ford’s family originally appears to be from Ireland, but had settled in New Brunswick, Canada. They had moved to Potsdam, Saint Lawrence, New York when he was just a boy, and were living there by the 1850 census. John was a Civil War soldier joining the Union Army as a private in Company B, New York 16th Infantry Regiment. He had enlisted on 15 May 1861 and was mustered out on 11 Dec 1862. He received a pension, and Margaret later received a widow’s pension.

1880: CENSUS of DICKINSON, FRANKLIN, NEW YORK

John B. Foard, white, male, 38, (Head), married, Farmer, Born: Canada, Father: Ireland, Mother: Canada

Margret Foard, black, female, 39, married, Keeping House, Born: England, Father: Africa, Mother: England

John F. Foard, mulatto, male, 6, son, single, Born: New York, Father: Canada, Mother: England

Guthrie, Evas C, mulatto, female, 19, boarder, single, Born: Vermont, Father: Ireland, Mother: England

Guthrie, Mary A, mulatto, female, 17, boarder, single, Born: New York, Father: Ireland, Mother: England

Guthrie, Wealtha J, mulatto, female, 15, boarder, single, Born: New York, Father: Ireland, Mother: England

Guthrie, Calista, mulatto, female, 12, boarder, single, at school, Born: New York, Father: Ireland, Mother: England

Guthrie, Lillie, mulatto, female, 9, boarder, single, at school, Born: New York, Father: Ireland, Mother: England

Clark, Hiram, white, male, 22, single, laborer, Born: New York, Father: Vermont, Mother: Vermont

Hanly, John, white, male, 24, single, laborer, Born: Ireland, Father: Ireland, Mother: Ireland

This census suggests that John B. Ford either believed John F. Ford was his natural son, or that he and Margaret planned to raise John as such.

1897: DEATH of JOHN B FORD

Margaret’s second husband, John B. Ford, died on 27 Sep 1897 at St Regis Falls, Franklin County, New York. He is buried at Forest Cemetery in Waverly. Margaret outlived him by another 13 years. 

1900: CENSUS of ST REGIS FALLS, WAVERLY, FRANKLIN, NEW YORK

John Ford, head, white, male, Nov 1873, 26, married 1yr, Born: New York, Father: Nova Scotia, Mother: England, Farmer

Dora Ford, wife, white, female, Jan 1883, 17, married 1yr, no children living/dead, Born: New York, Father: New York, Mother: New York

Margaret Ford, mother, (a B is overwritten with a W), female, Apr 1839, 61, widowed, 8 children 5 living, Born: England, Father: Africa, Mother: England, immigration year 1848, years in US: 52, housework

Evas Ford, sister, white, female, May 1861, 39, single, no children, Born: Vermont, Father: New York (not IRE), Mother: England, seamstress

Lillie Ford, sister, white, female, Sep 1871, 28, single, no children (instead of 1 or 2), Born: New York, Father: New York (not IRE) Mother: ENG, housework

Phillip Schuyler, nephew, (a B is overwritten with a W), male, June 1889 10, Born: New York, Father: New York, Mother: New York, at school

Julian Ford, nephew, white, male, Mar 1894, 6, Born: New York, Father: New York, Mother: New York

1905: CENSUS of NEW YORK STATE

Election District One

Santa Clara Road, Waverly, Franklin, New York

John Ford, head, (W overwritten with a B), male, 37, Born: USA, farmer

Dora Ford, wife, white, female, 27, Born: USA, housework 

Frank Ford, son, black, male, 5, USA

Margaret Ford, daughter, black, female, 2, USA

Lawrence Ford, son, black, male, 1, USA

Evas Guthrie, sister, black, female, 47, USA, at home

Phillip Schuyler, nephew, black, male, 15, USA, laborer at mill

Margaret Ford, mother, black, female, 66, England, 56 years in USA

Julian Guthrie, nephew, black, male, 11, USA, at school

1910: CENSUS of WAVERLY, FRANKLIN, NEW YORK

Dickinson Center Road

Margaret Ford, head, female, black, 72, widowed, 8children/6 living, Born: England, Father: Africa, Mother: England, Imm: 1849, Cannot Read/Write

Evas Guthrie, daughter, female, mulatto, 48, single, Born: Vermont, Father: Ireland, Mother: England

Julian Guthrie, grandson, male, mulatto, 16, single, Born: New York, Father: New York, Mother: New York, laborer at stove mill

Phillip Schuyler, grandson, male, mulatto, 20, single, Born: New York, Father: New York, Mother: New York, culler at lumber yard

1910: DEATH of MARGARET (WALKER) GUTHRIE FORD

Margaret died on 6 Oct 1910 in St Regis, Waverly, Franklin, New York less than a month after her daughter, Mary Ann (Guthrie) Johnson. Her obituary was published in The Adirondack News on the 8th.

OBITUARY of MARGARET FORD

THEIR STORY

The year was about 1860 when George Guthrie, a white farmer of Scot-Irish origin, and Margaret Walker, a black/mulatto domestic servant of English birth met and presumably married in either Canada or Grand Isle County, Vermont. It is interesting to look back through the lens of history to consider what their lives would have been like as a biracial couple just prior to the American Civil War.

Details of George Guthrie’s personal immigration story are unknown for the most part. He was born in Ireland and arrived in North America around 1847-1850. He may have arrived in New Brunswick, Canada or in New York.

Margaret Walker was about 9 years of age when she left England. In 1851, at 14, she appears to be living in St Georges de Clarenceville, Rouville, Canada East (Quebec), Canada, with several people of the Billings name. By age 21, Margaret relocated directly across the US-Canadian border in Grand Isle, Vermont, where she was listed in 1860 as a domestic servant to David Marvin. This is the first record revealing that Margaret has some African ancestry as it lists her as mulatto.

Being born in England around 1838, Margaret Walker would have been born a free woman. The British Parliament had passed the Abolition of Slavery Act in 1833, which also applied to all British territories. Census records tell us that her father was born in Africa and her mother in England. This suggests that her mother was either white or mulatto.

George and Margaret soon moved from Alburgh, Grand Isle, Vermont to Hopkinton, Saint Lawrence, New York. George died there between 1873 and 1875, parents to 5 daughters and 1 son. Margaret remarried to John B Ford. Her son John Francis Guthrie assumed the surname of his stepfather and was raised as his son.


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